Monday, August 2, 2010

-USE AND EXPLOITATION OF NATURE-

USES OF NATURE

                       INTRODUCTION
Exploitation and the use of natural elements and species is an essential condition of the human existence, to varying degrees. This refers primarily to harvesting, food production, mining, logging, housing, cities, road building, and using other entities from the natural environment for our own desires and needs. Often the exploitation of nature has been done in a non-sustainable way, which is causing increasing concern. A non-sustainable exploitation of natural resources ultimately threatens human existence by causing far too much pollution in the soil, air, and water that we need. Global warming is a deep rooted problem, and only a collective effort of humanity can reduce its effects. Global warming won't disappear overnight, but if each of us will follow the measures mentioned above we can all contribute to preventing global warming. For us and for our future generations, each of us must make the decision to take whatever steps are necessary to prevent global warming, because together we can make a difference.


 

(pictures shows the uses of natural resources)

USES OF NATURE

1. Water


- Commercial water use
Domestic water use is probably the most important daily use of water for most people.
- Domestic use
Water that is used in the home every day, including water for normal household purposes, such as drinking, food preparation, bathing, washing clothes and dishes, flushing toilets, and watering lawns and gardens.
- Industrial water use
Is a valuable resource to the nation's industries for such purposes as processing, cleaning, transportation, dilution, and cooling in manufacturing facilities. Industries often reuse the same water over and over for more than one purpose.
- Irrigation water use
Is water artificially applied to farm, orchard, pasture, and horticultural crops, as well as water used to irrigate pastures, for frost and freeze protection, chemical application, crop cooling, harvesting, and for the leaching of salts from the crop root zone. Nonagricultural activities include self-supplied water to irrigate public and private golf courses, parks, nurseries, turf farms, cemeteries, and other landscape irrigation uses.
- Livestock water use
Includes water for stock animals, feed lots, dairies, fish farms, and other nonfarm needs. Water is needed for the production of red meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and wool, and for horses, rabbits, and pets. Livestock water use only includes fresh water.
- Mining water use
Includes water for the extraction of naturally occurring minerals; solids, such as coal and ores; liquids, such as crude petroleum; and gases, such as natural gas.
- Public Supply water use
Water withdrawn by public and private water suppliers, such as county and municipal water works, and delivered to users for domestic, commercial, and industrial purposes.
- Thermoelectric Power water use
The amount of water used in the production of electric power generated with heat.



2. Radiation


- Carbon dating
Every living thing absorbs Carbon, including the relatively rare isotope 14C (about 1% of all Carbon isotopes). Carbon-14 is radioactive by beta-emission, with a half-life of about 5700 years. When the specimen dies, it stops absorbing Carbon, and so by measuring the amount of 14C present in a sample, and comparing that to a comparable living specimen, one can get an estimate of the sample's age.
- Sterilization of equipment and food
The fact that radiation can destroy biological material is used in the sterilization of medical equipment, where a lack of contamination is essential. More controversial is the same use on food, where it is used to destroy agents which hasten spoilage.
- Smoke detectors
In a smoke detector, a low-level radioactive material is present. This radiation can ionize particles contained in smoke, which are subsequently detected by their charge.
- X-rays
Although more damaging to biological tissue than visible light, due to the fact that the associated photons have more energy, X-rays can see finer detail when used in a ``microscope'' due to their short wavelength.
- Tumor treatment
Radiation is used to destroy tumors present in a body. Damage to healthy cells is controlled by using radioactive samples with specific half-lives which subsequently are intended to decay in the vicinity of the tumor when injected into the body.

3. Magnetism
-Magnetic recording media
Common VHS tapes contain a reel of magnetic tape. The information that makes up the video and sound is encoded on the magnetic coating on the tape. Common audio cassettes also rely on magnetic tape. Similarly, in computers, floppy disks and hard disk record data on a thin magnetic coating.
-Credit, debit, and ATM cards
Each of these cards has a magnetic strip on one side. This strip contains the necessary information to contact an individual's financial institution and connect with that person's account.
- Common television sets and computer monitors
Most TV and computer screens rely in part on electromagnets to generate images. Plasma screens and LCDs rely on different technologies entirely.
- Loudspeakers and microphones
A speaker is fundamentally a device that converts electrical energy (the signal) into mechanical energy (the sound), while a microphone does the reverse. They operate by combining the features of a permanent magnet and an electromagnet.
- Electric motors and generators
Some electric motors (much like loudspeakers) rely on a combination of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet, as they convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. A generator is the reverse, it converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
- Transformers
Transformers are devices that transfer electrical energy between two windings that are electrically isolated but linked magnetically.

4. Solar energy
- City residential homes
In these grid-connected systems, a PV System supplies electricity to the building and any day-time excess may be exported to the grid. Batteries are not required because the grid supplies any extra demand. However, if you want to be independent of the grid supply you will need battery storage to provide power outside daylight hours.
- Industrial application
For many years, Solar Energy has been the power supply of choice for Industrial applications, where power is required at remote locations. This means in these applications that solar power is economic, without subsidy. Most systems in individual uses require a few kilowatts of power. The examples are powering repeater stations for microwave, TV and radio, telemetry and radio telephones.
- Central power station
Central Power applications use solar energy in the same configuration that a Utility would utilize a major power station.
- Water pumping, lighting and heating in the developing world
PV Systems can be used to pump water in remote areas e.g. as part of a portable water supply system. Solar energy can also power area lighting to enable more outdoor activities after dark or improve security, and to illuminate signs or advertising boards.

- Commercial buildings
The first is as a "curtain wall system" that constitutes the weather barrier of the building. The second, as a "rainscreen overcladding system" where there is an underlying weather barrier that provides the insulation and sealing of the building. The third option is to create sunshades or balconies incorporating a PV System. Sunshades may have the PV System mounted externally to the building or have PV cells specially mounted between glass sheets comprising the window.

5. Trees

- Trees to fruit production
Man has learnt how to improve their resistance to the environment, or to the attack of pests and diseases. He has increased their production capacity, their appreance or their nutrient value.
- Trees for the production of firewood or charcoal
Fire is used to protect us from the cold, animals and to cook food. Feeling of the forest also allow him to deforest land where food can be obtained.
- Trees for the production of tools, houses and means of transport
We learned to build our tools, our weapons, our homes and our means of transportion.
- Trees for the production of industrial production
Besides cellulose, trees contain many components that are used by industry.
- Trees for the obtention of medicines and natural remedies
From trees we extract products that are used for the manufacture of medicines. The pharmaceutical industry obtain the majority of drugs through chemical processes.

6. Soil


- Used as agriculture
Serves as the primary nutrient base for plants.
- Critical component in the mining and construction industries
Serves as a foundation for most construction project.
Habitat
Soil is the habitat for many organisms.

EXPLOITATION OF NATURE




INTRODUCTION
Global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature rises). It happens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrous oxide and methane) trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere which increases the temperature. This hurts many people, animals and plants. Many cannot take the changes so they die. Global warming affects many parts of the world. Global warming makes the sea rise and when the sea rises, the water covers many low and islands. This is a big problem to many plants, people and animals on islands. The water covers the plants and causes some of them die. When they die, the animals lose a source of food, along with their habitat. When the animals and plants die, people lose two sources of food, animal food and plant food. This would be called a break in food chain, or a chain reaction.


CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING

Natural causes of global warming

• Volcanic eruption
Large volcanic eruption can throw so much dust into the sky that the dust acts as a shield to solar radiation and causes a cooling trend in the atmosphere.

• Sunspot
Changes in the Earth’s solar radiation levels can have some impact on the Earth’s climate. Increased solar activity can cause short-term warming cycles on the Earth.

• The wobbly Earth
As the Earth spins, it does not achieve perfect rotation. It actually wobbles slightly, thus alternately exposing the southern and northern latitudes to less or more solar radiation. This wobble on the Earth’s radiation has been causing changes in the temperature of the atmosphere for many millions of the year.

Human causes global warming

• Driving car
Driving car which require the combustion of tremendous amounts of fossil fuels. These fuels have been storing carbon for thousands, possibly millions of years. When car burns them, that carbon is instantly released as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.


• Buying suburban home
Buying suburban home whose lot was cleared of existing trees and plants that were actively storing carbon. When those plant were killed to build houses, they stop storing carbon and released all the carbon they had accumulated over tens or even hundreds of years.

• Supermarket meat
Eating supermarket meat which requires both the clearing of land for growing animal feed and the use of enormous fossil-fuel powered machine in the production, processing and transportation of this feed. Goat, beef and lamb, digestive tract produce methane, a major greenhouse gas. Animal agriculture is responsible for 18% of global greenhouse gas emissions.

EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING


• The artic tundra is melting
Causing an increase in methane levels in the atmosphere. A mysterious spike in atmospheric methane was measured in 2007. In addition, the rate of carbon increase in the atmosphere is accelerating each year, which may also be related to the thawing of arctic areas.
• Severe drought and flooding
As weather pattern become more extreme. Unfortunately, the world's economic and agricultural systems rely on existing patterns of weather, and as global warming changes these patterns, our ability to produce food is declining.
• Climate changes
Climate change makes our markets unstable, less efficient, and thus more expensive. Prices are increasing for a number of reasons.
• Countless species of animals are wiped out
It could play a major role in the extinction of many species that are crucial to stabilizing the food chain that you and I (and countless other animals) depend on for our food. It will surely mean an end to the polar bear, which depends on sea ice for hunting.

PREVENTION


• Solar energy
One good way to prevent global warming is choosing to use power produced by alternative means rather than by the burning of fossil fuels, which give off large amounts of carbon dioxide. Solar energy can be a good alternative to use.


• Planting trees
Planting trees is another great way to prevent global warming, because they are natural controllers of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Recycled paper can be a really good measure to save trees and prevent global warming.



• Save energy
Everybody can help to prevent global warming by not wasting energy in their homes. Alternative power sources, like home solar energy generators, are a good way to make sure you are getting energy from means that are better for the Earth.


• Increase awareness
We need to teach our children, and increase awareness in factory owners, of the problems of energy conservation and global warming. Future generations must be encouraged and taught to save the Earth, which is our habitat, and one we share with other species. The media has a major role to play in helping people understand the importance and impact of global warming.


• Reduce carbon emission
The first step that you can take is to see how you can reduce carbon emissions from your home and garden. One of the known causes of global warming is the carbon emissions from cars. To prevent this type of emission you can see about driving an electric hybrid car.


• Use compact fluorescent bulbs
Another of the global warming prevention steps that you can take is to use compact fluorescent bulbs instead of normal bulbs. You can see about insulating your house as this too will help you from having to use large amounts of energy trying to keep your home warm.


• Reduce
All materials to your best ability in your local area.
The amount of energy you consume and start using renewable energy sources, such as wind power and solar power.
• Reuse
By using products made with recycled materials. Make or buy a compost bin to use your organic waste as fertilizer for your trees, shrubs, and garden.
• Recycle
All materials to your best ability in your local area.

 VIDEO :




If video did not upload please click this link :If video not uploaded please click this link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zpu7IZcdzXE








CONCLUSION

When you see how these different global warming facts pertain to our lives you begin to understand that we have a role to play in stopping the worst damages from occurring. By understanding how global warming prevention can help to reduce these horrific effects you can make sure that future generations have the chance for a good and disaster free life ahead of them.


Group members :
      BSc Biotechnolgy
      MB 101- Introduction to Medical Sciences Assignment

  • TALITHA A/P SUPRAMANI ( 1000924612)
  • THAMAYANTHI RAJENDRAN (1000818754)
  • AGALYA KUPPUSAMY (1000819213)

References:

   

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